Tag Archives: eggNOG

Video Tip of the Week: eggNOG for the holidays (or to explore orthologous genes)

ResearchBlogging.org Who can resist a nice cup of eggnog for the holidays (especially with added brandy). I know I can’t. I make my grandpa’s recipe every December and, considering it uses tons of sugar, eggs, heavy cream and alcohol and that 1/2 & 1/2 is the lightest ingredient, only December.

Oh, that’s not what this tip is about, it’s about database of orthologous groups of genes, eggNOG. We’ve mentioned eggNOG before several times, but only in passing or in relation (orthologous? :D) to another database or tool. Today, in perfect timing for the season, thought I’d do a quick tip to introduce eggNOG.

eggNOG is brought to you by the same research group that developed a lot of other excellent tools such as SMART (protein domains), STRING (protein-protein interactions, STITCH (protein-chemical interactions) , iTOL and so much more. Of course they do some fascinating research too.

eggNOG is a relatively straightforward database to use, but it has a wealth of information you might want to check out. As the recent paper in NAR states:

Orthologous relationships form the basis of most comparative genomic and metagenomic studies and are essential for proper phylogenetic and functional analyses…. Orthology, defined as homology via speciation, is a crucial concept in evolutionary biology and is essential for disciplines such as comparative genomics, metagenomics and phylogenomics. The concepts of orthology and paralogy, with the latter being defined as homology via duplication, have been used as a foundation to introduce the concept of clusters of orthologous groups: proteins that have evolved from a single ancestral sequence existing in the last common ancestor (LCA) of the species that are being compared, through a series of speciation and duplication events. Orthologous groups (OGs) have proven useful for functional analyses and the annotation of newly sequenced genomes  as orthologs tend to have equivalent functions.

eggNOG contains:

721 801 orthologous groups, encompassing a total of 4 396 591 genes…. from 1133 species.

For more about orthologous groups, methods used and pros and cons of methodology, you might want to check out the paper referenced below. They’ve included several informative and helpful reviews and references.

Right now, take a quick tour of what eggNOG can offer.

Quick Links:
STRING tutorial
SMART tutorial
Tip of the Week: iTOL

Powell, S., Szklarczyk, D., Trachana, K., Roth, A., Kuhn, M., Muller, J., Arnold, R., Rattei, T., Letunic, I., Doerks, T., Jensen, L., von Mering, C., & Bork, P. (2011). eggNOG v3.0: orthologous groups covering 1133 organisms at 41 different taxonomic ranges Nucleic Acids Research DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkr1060

NAR database issue (always a treasure trove)

The advance access release of most of the  NAR database issue articles is out. As usual, this this database issue includes a wealth of new and updated data repositories and analysis tools. We’ll be writing up additional more extensive blog posts on it and doing some tips of the week over the next couple months, but I thought I’d highlight the issue and some of the reports:

There are a lot of updates to many of the databases we know and love (links to go full text article): UCSC Genome Browser, Ensembl, UniProt, MINT, SMART, WormBase, Gene Ontology,  ENCODE, KEGG, UCSC Archaeal Browser, IMG/M, DBTSS, InterPro and others (we have tutorials on all those listed here).

And, as an indication of the explosion of data available (itself a subject of a database issue article, SRA), there are a lot of new(ish) databases on specific datatypes such as MINAS, a database of metal ions in nucleic acids (nice name :D); doRiNA, a database of RNA interactions in post-transcriptional regulation; BitterDB, a database of bitter compounds and well over 100 more.

And I’ll give a special shout out to my former PI at EMBL because I can, Peer Bork’s group has 4 databases listed in the issue: eggNOG, SMART, STITCH and OGEE. (and he and a couple members are on the InterPro paper also).

This is going to be a wealth of information to wade through!

UCSC Genome Browser: http://genome.ucsc.edu
Ensembl: http://www.ensembl.org/
UniProt: http://www.uniprot.org/
MINT: http://mint.bio.uniroma2.it/mint/
SMART: http://smart.embl.de/
WormBase: http://www.wormbase.org/
Gene Ontology: http://www.geneontology.org/
ENCODE: http://genome.ucsc.edu/ENCODE/
KEGG: http://www.kegg.jp
UCSC Archaeal Brower: http://archaea.ucsc.edu/
IMG: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/cgi-bin/w/main.cgi
DBTSS: http://dbtss.hgc.jp/
InterPro: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro